Governing Postwar Iraq
Compiled by washingtonpost.com Staff
Tuesday, April 15, 2003; 10:20 AM
The United States, under the auspices of the Pentagon, has formed the Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance to administer the country on an interim basis and to provide humanitarian aid, rebuild damaged infrastructure and help establish a representative government.
The effort is led by retired Army Maj. Gen. Jay M. Garner who reports directly to Gen. Tommy Franks the overal commander of allied forces in Iraq. ORHA consists of three civilian administrators who will each oversee a different region of Iraq. Other officials, mostly Americans with military or government backgrounds, will supervise government ministries with the help of Iraqi exiles. It is unclear how long the ORHA will administer Iraq but Garner says his team will complete the mission 90 days after hitting the ground in Iraq. Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz has said it may take longer than six months to establish a new government.
The plan for administering Iraq has been complicated by disputes between the Pentagon and State Department over the team's composition and the extent of the mission. It is also unclear what role, if any, the United Nations will play in postwar Iraq.
Here are some of the key people involved:
Jay M. Garner is a former three-star Army general. His 34-year military career included stints as the assistant vice chief of staff for the U.S. Army and as the commanding general of the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (now Space and Missile Defense Command). After the Persian Gulf War in 1991, he directed Operation Provide Comfort, the humanitarian effort that resettled displaced Kurds in northern Iraq.
Barbara K. Bodine, former ambassador to Yemen, served in the U.S. mission in Baghdad during the 1980s. She will administer the central region of Iraq, including the capital, and reports to Garner.
Roger "Buck" Walkers, a retired Air Force lieutenant-general turned corporate executive, is the regional coordinator for southern Iraq.
George F. Ward is a former U.S. ambassador to Namibia where he was credited with managing a successful humanitarian de-mining program and helping to fight gender violence. Ward will coordinate humanitarian assistance in Iraq.
Lewis Lucke is a veteran official of the U.S. Agency for International Development and served in Jordan and Tunisia, as well as Africa and Latin America. He will be in charge of Iraq's reconstruction.
Michael Mobbs is a corporate lawyer and former Pentagon legal adviser. Mobbs will be in charge of civic administration and is expected to oversee the process of removing Hussein's Baath Party loyalists from government.
He authored a memo for federal courts last year asserting that the president can deem American citizens "enemy combatants" and detain them indefinitely.
Other key U.S. officials working on the future of Iraq include:
Zalmay Khalilzad, a member of the president's National Security Council, is U.S. special envoy to Iraqi exiles and former special envoy in Afghanistan. The Afghan-born Khalilzad served in the the State Department under previous Republican administrations and worked in the Pentagon policy planning office under now Assistant Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz.
Ryan Crocker, a former U.S. ambassador to Syria, Kuwait and Lebanon, is the deputy assistant secretary of state for Near Eastern affairs at the State Department. Following the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, he was the director of the Iraq-Kuwait Task Force. Crocker is a career foreign service officer who has served in Iran, Qatar, Iraq, and Egypt.